The Two Critical Questions your Territory Plan Must Answer

Earlier in my career, I worked for a large National Retailer. It was my responsibility to manage inventories, forecasts and ensure that the right products were in the right place (the store) exactly when the customer wanted to make a purchase. In order to do this, I balanced data such as: costs of inventories, what I knew about the forecasts, sales trend data, supply chain lead times and promotions. Sometimes I’d even look into things like weather data or sales of complementary goods (i.e. a ‘market basket’) to ensure I was managing my inventories and assortments effectively. The best thing about that job was at 8:00am Monday morning – I always knew exactly how I was doing! Sales and Inventory reports were delivered to my desk and with a highlighter pen in hand, I devoured the report. What was selling on plan? Where did I run out of inventory over the weekend? What tweeks needed to happen in my inventory balances to execute properly for the week ahead? This constant clarity of feedback helped fuel continuous improvement. Enterprise Software sales is different. Sales cycles can be measured in months (or years!) and interim feedback can often be spurious (ever hear the term, ‘all buyers are liars’? Maybe it’s unfair to say ‘all’ – but human nature dictates that your customer may not want to deliver bad news). So without a “Monday Morning” scorecard, how do you know if you’re moving in the right direction for success? The answer of course is your Territory Plan.

The Fundamentals of your Territory Plan

I’m not going to review the details of how to construct a territory plan, because there are already some fine discussions of that on the web (Look here, or here if you’re interested for two examples). At a high level the process involves reviewing your target prospects, refining that list to the ‘most likely to purchase from you’, understanding exactly why these customers need the product you’re selling and finally creating an action plan to communicate with and educate the prospect, leading them towards a purchase. Of course all plans are ‘made to be broken’ and a talented Sales person will be able to adapt the plan on the fly as necessary to take advantage of opportunities as they arise, but the idea is to reduce variability or the need for ‘luck’ as much as possible. A Territory Plan will answer the following two questions:

1.Where is the money coming from?

This is the first and most important question. You can’t answer this question unless you KNOW your territory, you understand your prospective customers and you are clear on what you have a realistic chance of selling. New products are harder to forecast than established products and new territories are harder than mature, established ones. Answering the question of “Who is Likely to Buy?” – is very different from “Who could benefit?” and you can’t confuse them. Also, don’t ignore any part of your business. Some revenues will come from new customers, some from existing customers (one company I was with encouraged us to review all old contracts to identify ‘incremental license’ opportunities where the customer might have expanded use over time). This becomes your ‘opportunity pipeline’. The exact plan for what deals need to happen to hit your targets.

There’s much debate about how much the pipeline needs to have in order to ensure sales targets are met. Some ‘traditionalists’ like the 3:1 ratio… but your company will know better that your specific pipeline needs to be to ensure quotas. The practical reality is, there are many variables including: How well qualified are opportunities? (No point having millions of poorly qualified opportunities wasting time) What unique circumstances improve your competitiveness in the market? How is the landscape changing and how can you benefit from those changes?

The list of qualified opportunities is your list of exactly where the sales are anticipated to happen. This list is updated constantly, in real time and therefore your Territory Plan needs to be constantly updated and reviewed.

2.How should I be spending my time?

Time is the one constant for each of us on this planet. We all have exactly the same amount of time in a day. The only difference, is how we choose to spend that time. At a high level, there are four basic activities you should be involved in: (1) Building Pipe, (2) Developing Opportunities, (3) Closing, and (4) Personal Development. The trick is that not every activity should get the same amount of time – in fact, different situations require different time allocations. The end goal is to have a Sales Funnel that moves prospects through from New Lead, to Happy Customer in a predictable pattern – so none of those activities can be ignored.

With ‘time’ as your resource, you are spending it to move prospects along the sales funnel. This progress along the milestones toward closing is how you can measure your progress incrementally – like that weekly report I mentioned earlier. Identify the bottlenecks, and you will identify opportunities for personal development and opportunities to creatively solve problems.

It’s no surprise that when you boil down the answer to the question posed above – it comes right down to PLANNING (Where is the money coming from?”) and EXECUTION (“How will I spend my time?”).

Everything comes down to those two things. You can’t control your buyers’ decisions and you can’t control the market – but you can have a plan and execute against it flawlessly.

-Lorne Campbell 2018.

Sales Secret Weapon: The Essential Close Plan

OK, I confess the headline grabber I wrote isn’t correct.  A Close Plan should NEVER be a secret, it should be the opportunity roadmap.   I bet if you were driving someplace you’d never been to before – you’d use a map – A LOT. Here are some thoughts on why I ALWAYS use a Close Plan for important deals.

A Close Plan is a jointly agreed upon set of steps that buyer and seller jointly agree need to happen to finalize a contract.  It’s a way of ensuring that the opportunity is progressing and avoids surprises along the way. Since most prospects aren’t as familiar with your process as you are, it’s important to be clear and set expectations of exactly what will happen and how long each step will take.  Other authors have made the point not to call it a “Close Plan” in front of your prospect (since it may be seen as ‘dehumanizing’) and prefer Engagement Plan – that’s great too.  I simply state : “Here’s a list of things that need to happen in order for us to begin the project on time”.

Don’t show up with a timeline and announce to the prospect – “Here’s the plan”.  Instead, mention that you need a planning session to jointly understand what needs to happen between now and the project start date.  Setting up the discussion to create the list of steps that need to happen for “XYZ Project” (the prospect usually has a name for the project they are acquiring software for) is important for several reasons:

(A) It allows the prospect to feel ownership for action items – it’s their project.

(B) Allows them to openly discuss what needs to happen on their side to check each item off the list.  (How often is a key person on vacation at a critical moment? Or last minute someone realizes the Board needs to review the decision – and they won’t meet till next month?)

(C) Allows you to share what happens in your organization for a contract to be executed.  Prospects may assume you can make everything happen immediately. Until you explain the reality, don’t expect any empathy when you don’t deliver on their optimistic expectations.

Timing is Critical

For software/technology businesses, each quarter close is essential.  Management and Sales teams are measured on performance to quarterly targets.  Revenue predictability is critical for every function of a Software Company, from Management, to R&D, and especially to Consulting Services.  All those teams need to know when the revenue is happening in order to have appropriate resources lined up and ready to go. Therefore, timing the close is critical to a technology sales person.

Customers may be trained to expect a discount at the end of a fiscal year (or quarter) – so that may be worth acknowledging, “We both know my company end-of-year is coming up, so you might be expecting an extra discount…”,  If you are really taking care of your customer – you will clearly signal when you’re giving them that final price. I had an SVP of sales once say directly to my customer, “Two things are critical here…Price and Time. If you can commit to the timing of our agreement, I can commit to our best price.”

In order to effectively write and maintain commitment to the CP, the customer needs to understand the benefits to THEM for having the close plan.

Benefits to the Customer of Having a Close Plan
  • It manages their project Start Time – without an agreement, the project gets delayed.
  • Helps them ask the right questions internally of what needs to happen – and plan contingencies as things change.
  • Allows for resources to be properly assigned and slotted (both during the close…i.e. CFO signature, Contracts Review…and Project Mgr assigned to begin project)
  • Clearly signals when final contracts will be negotiated, terms and conditions approved and pricing finalized.  (Avoids last second demands that can stall in legal review).
Benefit to the Seller of Having a Close Plan
  • It clearly shows what needs to happen to reach agreement.

The seller only needs one reason – to understand what needs to happen to close the deal.  It should be constantly reviewed and validated. Ask questions such as, “Are we on track to completing these open-items?”… or “If I complete steps X,Y,Z…are you still confident we will be signing by that date?”

Thinking of the Close Plan as a checklist of items that need to happen also identifies some items need to happen in sequence, and others that can happen anytime.  Identify the real bottlenecks early and stay focused on them.

Using the Close Plan During the Negotiation

If done properly, a jointly-agreed to CP is a commitment from both parties to work on a schedule.  Identify areas where negotiation will happen, and what stage final pricing and proposal will be reached.  Customers understand that proposals and pricing can’t be finalized until the contract terms are reached (since things in the contract can impact costs, liability etc..) and therefore you should identify the time to negotiate.  After that time – any further changes to the agreement may add cost and delay. Cost and delay equal RISK, and everyone should work to minimize risk as much as possible. The parties should feel a sense of urgency to get the tasks done on the checklist and if handled well, is a good sign for how the companies will work together once they become partners in the actual project.

The level of detail you go into while creating the Plan will depend upon the value of the deal and the complexity of its moving parts.  How many parties need to be aligned?  How much risk (to the project or even  the sale) is there?   Good sales people make good habits of using a Close Plan, and constantly re-visiting it during a sales cycle.

May all your sales cycles be progressing!